傣族节日习俗

傣族还有自己的民族语言,还有傣族节日和傣族习俗。 以下是小编精心整理的傣族节日习俗。 欢迎您阅读。 我希望你会喜欢。

傣族的节日及风俗习惯/

傣族节日

向瓦拉哈献祭:

“德瓦拉哈贡”是傣语,意为“家神”,是傣族人民的祭祀节日。 时间不确定,重大事件发生时就要做出牺牲。 家族的生肖供奉于户主家中,由户主负责祭祀。 在同一个村落里,不同的家庭会杀不同颜色的鸡来祭祀神灵。 每个家庭都有一个家神,通常放置在父母睡觉的地方上方或火坑上方的竹架上。 如果家庭成员离开家庭或生病,则必须使用蜡棒和其他物品作为祭品。 结婚时,要把两块浸过酒的汤圆揉在一起,放在角架上祭祀,祈求家神保佑。

献祭迪乌穆拉加:

“丢乌拉甲”是傣语,意为街神,是傣族民间祭祀节日。 每三年举行一次盛大的节日。 祭祀时,必须宰杀狗、鸡。 祭拜街神之前,通向市场的三个路口都用绳子封在街上。 “满麦”代表街道长到街上收集铜钱,以满足祭祀所需的资金。

博萨拉:

布萨拉是云南省傣族人民的宗教节日。 各地的节日时间略有不同,通常在九月至十二月之间。 布萨拉实际上是对死者的祭祀。 届时,各家各户都会制作新的帕莎(冥间)、衣物、器皿模型,送到佛寺。 他们还会请佛念经、滴水祭拜死去的亲人。

跳跃摆动:

跳秋千是云南省傣族人民的民间宗教节日,每年农历二月初八举行。 节日期间,村里的男人们都要提前准备好丰盛的食物。 届时,带食物到佛寺,先向佛顶礼,然后将食物放在佛寺的地上。 大家坐在一起,互相交流,品尝各自带来的食物。 与此同时,还有四个中年男子,一个拿着大锣,一个拿着小碗,一个拿着大锣,一个打着象鼓。 他们奏乐跳舞,然后大家喝酒散去。

祭拜山神:

祭祀山神,傣语称“金雕巴拉”。 这是云南省勐腊县傣族人民的民间宗教节日,每年在农历二月初二和三月初七举行两次。 严格禁止女性参加。 小祭每年举行一次,大祭每三年举行一次。 第一次祭祀在二月初二举行。 这一天也是选择寺主的日子。 届时,全村男性,不分年龄,均可参加。 每人带一只鸡给村外的小家。 年长者拿出一个鸡蛋,成年男子轮流将鸡蛋立起来。 每人三次,谁能把鸡蛋竖起来? 谁站起来就成为庙主并主持祭祀。 此人死后,将按照上述方法选出寺庙主。 如果无法选出候选人,则由前任寺庙负责人的儿子继承。 祭祀开始时,先点燃香火,然后寺主念诵祈愿文,祈求人们平安、五谷丰登。 祭祀完毕后,人们纷纷祭拜山神。 三月初七的第二次仪式更为隆重。 首先,在村外的神树旁搭建了两个草棚。 南边的叫村神屋,北边的叫山神屋。 一旦建成就无法拆除,只有倒塌后才能修复。 祭祀时,人们带来鸡肉或猪肉,以及各种饮食用具,装饰神龛,并在上面放置各种祭品,由两名祭司主持。 村隍庙的祭司长大多是世袭的,而山神殿的祭司长可以轮流。 祭司长先念诵祈祷文,然后双手各抓一只鸡,割断鸡脖子,将血洒在地上,将鸡扔在地上,进行鸡占卜,决定是否去打猎。 随后,宰鸡宰猪,大家再次祭拜。 然后一起吃饭,仪式结束。傣族的节日和傣族的风俗习惯

波帕:

波巴,傣语,意为出家,是傣族的宗教节日。 傣历每年四月或八月举行。 那时,在佛寺里做预备和尚的“克用”请来了教父“波沃”,教父为他准备了黄袈裟、小圆帽以及出家所需的一切和​​尚用品。 在干爹家里举行贺礼后,送他到佛寺,念经,受戒为僧。 送可勇进寺是很有讲究的,要么骑马,要么背着人。

露水节:

黄鹿节,又称黄鹿节,是云南省傣族人民的传统节日。 每年傣历九月十五以后举行,节日持续四至五天。 届时,锣鼓仪仗队将列成象形队形,担任游行队伍的领头,以一头用竹篾编成、镶有彩画的大象为游行队伍的中心。 舞象者仰卧在象腹下的帘子里,表演大象戏法。 象座由四至八人抬着,周围铙钹、锣鼓环绕,绕赛场缓慢移动。 节日期间,按照佛寺安排的时间顺序展示。 展览一天一天地布置,村庄从一个地方移到另一个地方。

针灸治疗:

赕(dǎn)是云南傣族的宗教节日。 通常在傣历九月初举行。 那时,家家户户都会编织一根“大竹”(用竹片做成的细网状栅栏),用木棍插在田角,或者用草绳穿过“大竹”,挂在田里。山谷。 绕仓库或竹楼念经。 民间传说,“治疗”胆囊可以保证丰衣足食,保证人畜安全。

夏日祭:

“安嘎瓦”在傣语中意为“走出夏天”,源于古代佛教在雨季安居的习惯。 时间是傣历12月15日(大约农历九月中旬)。 象征着三个月的雨季结束,自“开门节”以来男女结婚的禁忌解除,所以人们称其为“开门节”。 禁忌解除后,青年男女可以开始自由恋爱或举行婚礼。 节日当天,青年男女身着盛装前往佛寺拜佛,供奉食物、鲜花、蜡棒和钱币。 礼拜结束后,举行盛大的文化聚会,庆祝闭关节以来斋戒的结束。 主要内容有燃放火花飞升、点孔明灯、歌舞等。 年轻人还会提着各种鸟、兽、鱼、虫等造型的灯笼在村子里跳舞。此时,稻谷收割完毕,因此也是庆祝丰收的节日。

开幕当天:

傣语称“出洼”,意为佛出寺。 云南傣族的传统宗教节日。 每年傣历12月15日举行。 活动内容与闭门节相同。 傣历腊月十五日,入洞时放在佛座后面的东西被取出烧毁,表示佛陀已出洞。 十六日,和尚出洞,全家男女老少,到陵墓拜佛。 17日,举行盛大的“接佛”活动。 因为这一天,佛陀西去说法,三个月后返回人间,所以各村各村都要敲锣打鼓,举行盛大的大会迎佛,同时,只得去藏房祈福。 内向的人向佛陀忏悔过去一年的罪孽; 僧侣们利用这段时间向年轻男女传播教义。 开斋节期间,农忙季节结束,天气渐冷,佛教活动不多。 年轻人可以谈恋爱或者结婚,成年人可以出去办事或者走亲访友。 这是傣族文化娱乐活动最多的时候。 人们放烟花、点灯笼、举灯、绕村走,热闹非凡。

嫩溪节:

嫩溪节是云南傣族的春节,时间与汉族的春节相同。 每年腊月的最后一个晚上,戴家人都要守夜,杀猪杀鸡。 鸡一叫,父母就点两炷香,去打水。 他们相信,在新的一年里,第一个打水的人是最吉祥的。 大年初一,年轻人穿上新衣,放鞭炮,给老人磕头拜年,然后到村外做游戏、跳舞、唱曲或谈恋爱。 新婚夫妇带着礼物回父母家见父母。

甘沫:

干模,傣语,意为“祭龙”。 云南傣族民间宗教节日于每年农历六月举行。 这个节日的目的是驱除害虫、迎接插秧、祈求丰收。 那时,全村人集资,杀了一头牛,杀了小猪,杀了鸡。 祭品摆好后,就要举行祭祀仪式。 前来参加祭祀的人必须自带米饭,祭祀结束后吃晚饭。 节日期间,人们必须停止工作一到三天。 在此期间,村里所有路口都要封锁,不准人们离开,以免得罪神灵,带来灾难。

祭祀水神:

祭水神是傣族民间祭祀节日。 每年春耕前后举行。 傣族认为,家家的田地里都有自己的“田头”,傣语称“户纳”。 每年春耕开始,都要修沟渠,祭祀水神。 在田头选一块地方,插一根一尺多高的竹竿或树枝,上面挂一个小竹筐,上上糯米、蜡条、大蕉、竹编的大鱼和两长串。鸡蛋壳。 ,象征年年有余、五谷丰登。 耕耘、播种、收获,一切都从这里开始。 收割时,第一茬谷子必须送回谷仓,作为谷物的灵魂。

中秋节:

云南新平、景谷、德宏等地的傣族,每逢中秋之夜,在屋顶平台上摆上一张用竹篾编成的小桌子,摆上糯米、饼等供品,由父母供奉。祭祀月亮,祈求丰收,然后放火烧天。 枪。 最后,全家人围坐在小桌子旁,品尝美食,有说有笑,赏月。

浴佛节:

浴佛节又称“泼水节”,起源于古印度婆罗门教的一种仪式,后被佛教吸收。 大约在公元十二世纪末至十三世纪初随佛教传入傣族地区。 随着佛教在傣族地区影响的不断加深,浴佛节已成为傣族人民的习俗,并传承了数百年。

嵩山卡:

松山卡是云南省傣族人民的宗教节日。 时间是傣历5月15日。 届时,蒙地诸佛将齐聚波苏蒙(瓦拉扎滩)说法礼佛,并计算当年闭节、开节的日期,然后由各寺院的佛陀通知各村。

水坝旅游节:

寻天坝节是云南省绿春地区傣族人民的传统民间节日。 每年农历正月十三举行。 这天一大早,村里的男女老少都身着节日盛装,聚集在村子的中心广场上。 人们敲锣打鼓,歌者端着米酒,唱着傣族的春节歌或四时歌。 大家玩得尽兴后,一位德高望重的长者宣布“游坝”开始,随后人们排成整齐的队伍,由八名手持彩旗的年轻人带领,放鞭炮、火药枪。 巡田的目的是为了迎接春天。

好轮节:

好伦瓦节是傣族的宗教节日,在傣历每年一月举行。 届时,家家户户都会向佛寺捐献大米,祈求上天保佑。

佐帕:

祖帕是云南傣族的一个宗教节日。 每年傣历12月15日,有的地方为傣历5月或1月。 梭帕的意思是给僧侣布施袈裟。 届时,每对夫妇都要准备一块可以当袈裟的黄布,送到佛寺,交给僧侣,并念诵经文,以示虔诚。

前往新街:

干新街,傣语又称“沾花街”、“马峨”。 云南省新平县水塘傣族人民的传统民俗节日在每年农历新年后举行。 按照傣族当地的风俗,春节过后,要走两条街,每条街十天。 第一条街是青少年的街道,第二条街是二十几岁未婚人士的街道,第三条街是已婚成年人的街道。 去二街的女孩子一定要带上特制的竹饭盒,送给男朋友或者亲人。 饭盒里装有糯米和腊肉,并用特制的布袋包裹。 一个女孩认为她有多少亲密朋友就应该带多少午餐盒,并且她为拥有更多而感到自豪。 未婚小伙子在大街小巷都能吃到盒饭。 有时父母也来看热闹,分享美味,他们也以此为荣。 男孩吃完饭后,把一些糖果、线头等小礼物放进竹篮里,还给女孩作为奖励。

祖考伦巴与继光:

每年傣历二月,有云南傣族人民的宗教节日“考伦巴”和“济光科”。 这两个节日同时举行,从2月3日开始,到2月15日结束。 那时,家家户户都开始在佛寺里竖起竹竿旗,傣语称“波东”。 其中一面旗帜是为霸照而挂的,另一面是为家族已故亲人或祖先所挂的。 此后,佛教信徒轮流到佛寺泼水,悼念帕照及其祖先。 十五号早上,家家户户都摘一车新粮和一点新米,去佛寺举行考伦巴活动,从高处浇水,祝贺丰收,并捐献。把所有的粮食都给寺里的和尚。 15日下午,阳光明媚。 几秒钟之内,各家各户的居民就把一捆剥了树皮的白木堆在庙内的空地上,然后点燃,以祝贺帕照升天。

盗贼塔:

贼塔,傣语意为“敬塔节”,是云南傣族的传统宗教节日。 各村举行的时间不固定,但总是在开门节之后。 节日前,人们铲除塔周围的杂草和荆棘,修复受损的塔身和塔基,并在塔周围搭起棚屋,供信徒休息和交易。 每逢节日,人们从各地聚集到这里拜塔、滴水、念经,祈求风调雨顺、五谷丰登。

截止日:

傣语称“金瓦”,意为佛祖入寺。 云南傣族传统宗教节日于每年傣历九年十五(农历七月中旬)举行,持续三个月。 相传,每年傣历初九,释迦牟尼佛都会到西方向母亲说法,直到三月才返回人间。 有一次,佛陀在西方说法时,成千上万的佛教徒到乡村去说法,毁坏了人民的庄稼,耽误了生产。 老百姓怨声载道,对佛教徒十分不满。 佛陀得知此事后,感到不安。 从此以后,每当佛陀到西方传法时,他都会召集所有的佛教徒,规定他们在这三个月内不准去任何地方,只能忏悔以弥补以前的罪过。 因此,人们称之为“关门节”。 傣族的节日和傣族的风俗习惯

宁披蔓:

宁皮满,傣语意为祭祀村神,是云南省傣族人民的祭祀节日。 每年举办两次,一次为种植前,一次为种植后。 皮曼通常指最早建立村庄的人或领导者的灵魂。 届时,由村长主持祭祀,各家各户在村里供奉蜡棒、鸡、酒、芭蕉、大米等。 祭祀时,村门必须关闭,用树枝、竹竿做标记,路口用绳子封闭。 外村的人不准进,本村的人也不准出去。 所有村民必须严格遵守祭祀规则。 在人们心目中,披曼是有灵性的,所以居民搬迁或迁出时,都要向它祭祀米酒、蜡棒等物品,并请求披曼允许搬出,成为入籍村民。

花街节:

又称“热水塘花街节”。 这是云南省元江傣族人民的传统民间节日,每年农历正月初七举行,持续一天。 傣族也过花街节,活动内容与傣族基本相同,但节日定在农历五月初六。 花街节的主要目的是辞旧迎新。 节日的早晨,太阳升起的时候,男女老少都穿着节日盛装,聚集在元江东岸的热水塘草坪上,在欢乐的歌声和欢笑声中庆祝节日。 老人们聊着往事,年轻人载歌载舞,孩子们追逐嬉戏,不亦乐乎。 人们还到热水池的温泉里沐浴,以祛除旧年的污秽,干净清爽地迎接新的一年。 这一天,未婚青年男女还要对歌寻找对象。

夏日祭:

傣语称“好娃”,意为立夏。 从傣历9月15日(农历七月中旬)开始,历时三个月。 相传,每年傣历九月,佛陀都会到西方向母亲说法,用了三个月的时间才回到人间。 有一次,佛陀在西方说法时,成千上万的佛教徒到乡村去说法,毁坏了人民的庄稼,耽误了生产。 人们怨声载道,对佛陀非常不满。 佛陀得知此事后,感到不安。 从此以后,每当佛陀到西方传法时,他都会把所有的佛教徒聚集在一起,规定这三个月里不许他们去任何地方,只能忏悔以弥补以前的罪过。 因此,人们称其为“关门节”。

泼水节:

傣族新年。 傣历6月24日至26日(夏历4月中旬),节日持续三至五天。 节日清晨,男女老少,沐浴更衣,到佛寺拜佛,即向佛像洒水,洗去灰尘,然后在佛像上泼水。互相消除疾病,消除灾难。 后来演变为以泼水为表演的节日。 相传,远古时期,有一个火魔,无恶不作,偷走了七个女孩。 最小的女孩弄香得知了杀死火妖的秘密:拔出它的头发并将其勒死。 恶魔变成一团火球,所到之处都会着火。 女孩们立即互相泼水,以扑灭邪火。 这个传说成为一种习俗,逐渐成为泼水节。 据说这个习俗起源于印度。 婆罗门每年这个时候都要到河里沐浴,以洗去罪孽。 如果老人不能下河,孩子们就会给他们泼水,洗去他们的罪孽。 后来传入中国傣族地区。

复活节彩蛋节:

复活节彩蛋节是傣族儿童的传统节日。 每年农历二月初十举行。 那时,傣族男孩女孩都会在胸前挂一个小袋子,里面装着几个染成黄、红、绿、紫等颜色的煮熟的鸡蛋。 他们会成群结队地到村边的树荫下或河边去。 庆祝你自己的节日。 孩子们先一起玩,然后一起吃饭。 大家吃完自带的蛋清,把剩下的蛋黄带回家送给父母或哥哥,以示对长辈的尊重。

傣族的风俗习惯

礼仪

傣族自古就是一个讲究礼仪的民族。 外人来到傣家,主人会主动打招呼,端茶送水,用饭招待。 无论男女老少,他们对客人总是微笑,说话轻声细语,从不喊叫、咒骂、说脏话。 女子走在客人面前时,应闭上裙子,低头行礼,步伐轻快; 如果客人在楼下,她不应该走到客人所在的楼上。 家家户户都有几套干净的被褥,用来招待客人。 有的傣族村寨在主干道旁还建有专门接待客人的“撒拉屋”。 到访傣家,会被主人视为“泼水”、“扎线”。 当客人到来时,门口会有小傣哨,端着银碗里浸过花瓣的水,用枝叶轻轻地浇在客人身上。 走到竹楼落座后,老米桃会在客人的手腕上系一根线,祝愿客人吉祥如意、平安幸福。 远道而来来到傣族村寨的客人,都被傣族人民热情友好的接待所感动,留下了难忘的印象。

婚姻习俗

“出红烧鸡”是西双版纳青年男女相传的一种求爱方式。 也就是女孩把红烧鸡拿到市场上去卖。 如果买家恰好是女孩暗恋的人,女孩会主动拿出凳子,让他坐在你旁边,互相交谈。 如果双方同意,就会拎着鸡和凳子到树林里去表达彼此的爱意。 如果买家不是女孩喜欢的,女孩就会加倍要价。 “喝酒”,男女订婚时,男方带着酒菜到女方家招待客人。 客人散去后,由男方三名男伴和女方及女方三名女伴陪同,摆桌分餐。 “吃小酒”就是吃三道菜:第一道菜要热,第二道菜要热。 第二道菜盐要多一些; 第三道菜应该有甜食。 意思是热、深、甜。 庆祝新房落成,最先上楼的是提着牛头唱着祝福歌的小伙子,抬着箱子的中年男子,拿着被子的已婚妇女,扛着被子的姑娘们。吃饭,然后把鼎架在火坑上。 桌上摆上酒菜,唱起喜庆新居的歌曲,村民们还给主人送上一些吉祥的礼物。 婚礼当天,婚礼必须在双方家里举行,一般是先在女方家举行。 婚宴时,宴会桌上要铺上绿色的芭蕉​​叶,菜肴有象征吉祥的雪王(百王)、年糕和各种菜肴。 宴会前,新郎和新娘要举行绑线仪式,即司仪将一根白线绕在双方的肩膀上,并将两条白线分别系在新郎和新娘的手腕上,象征纯洁。 将糯米捏成三角形,沾上盐,放在火坑上的鼎上。 燃烧后让它自然脱落,象征爱情坚如铁。傣族的节日和傣族的风俗习惯

节日

傣族的主要节日有“关门节”、“开门节”和泼水节。 “关门节”正值七月中旬,正是农忙季节。 大多数佛教节日也都集中在这段时间,这样我们就可以集中精力生产。 同时,还举行盛大的“拜佛”活动,向佛陀供奉食物、鲜花、银币、纸币等。 “闭门节”持续三个月左右,以10月中旬的“开门节”结束。 傣族最隆重的节日是泼水节。 它发生在每年四月。 按时间序列计算,公历四月相当于傣历正月。 泼水节也是傣族的新年。 按照传统习俗,这一天一早,人们采花、绿叶到佛寺祭拜,并提清水洗涤佛像的灰尘。 做完这些之后,大量的水花开始溅起。 成群结队的青年男女,端着铜碗、铜盆,在大街小巷里互相嬉戏、追逐。 他们把水泼到每个人身上,全身从头到脚都湿透了。 通过。 这就是吉祥水、福水。 人们尽情地泼它。 无论是泼水的还是被泼的,都高兴极了,哈哈大笑……泼水节期间,宽阔的澜沧江上举行划船活动。 赛龙舟时,水船上装饰着色彩缤纷的花朵,装扮成龙、孔雀、大鱼等形象。 数十名青年男女奋力前行。 两岸观众人潮如云,锣鼓声、欢呼声响彻天空。 到了晚上,各个村庄都会燃放高楼烟花,这是傣族人民自己制作的烟花。 用一根数尺长的竹子,在根部填满火药等材料,放在用竹子做成的高架上。 导火索点燃,火药燃烧,竹子像火箭一样飞上天空,在天空中放出绚丽的烟花,像一簇簇鲜花,星星闪闪发光,耀眼夺目,把喜庆的夜空装饰得格外美丽。 泼水节是迎接新年的节日,是一个欢乐的节日,通常持续三至五天。

建筑学

这个部落已经在竹楼中生活了一千多年。 这种类型的建筑非常适合南亚热带雨林的气候。 竹楼分为两层。 底层有围墙,是存放杂物和饲养牲畜的地方。 楼上是一家人居住和生活的地方。 每栋竹楼均设有阳台,家人可在此乘凉、晾晒衣物。 屋内是一间大客厅,上面铺着竹席。 家人用餐、休息、接见客人时,都坐在竹席上。 房子中央有一个火坑,可以做饭、取暖。 The living room is connected to the bedrooms, usually three to five, depending on the number of family members. Visiting guests are usually not allowed to spend the night in the bedrooms. The furniture in the house is very simple, mostly made of bamboo. All tables, chairs, beds, boxes, cages, and baskets are all made of bamboo. Every household has a simple quilt and tent, and occasionally some felts, lead and iron utensils, farm tools, pots and knives are all in one set, and rarely have extra ones. Pottery utensils are also common, including water tanks. The forms and patterns all have local color. Building a new house is a major event in the life of the Dai people. Before starting to build a house, you must first choose an address and lay the foundation stone. Next, prepare the eight main pillars. Since the entire bamboo building is built on these eight main pillars, choosing the material of the pillars becomes a very important matter. When the selected timber is carried into the village from the woods, the villagers blow trumpets to greet them and pour water to bless them. Among the eight pillars, there are four “male pillars” and four “female pillars”, which are covered with men’s clothes and women’s clothes respectively to show the difference. When building a house, the whole village will come to help. This is the tradition of the Dai people. At that time, the host will prepare sumptuous food and wine to entertain the villagers who come to help and relatives and friends who come to congratulate. The whole atmosphere was like a festival.

历史

Since ancient times, the ancestors of the Dai people have lived in the Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guizhou regions. They are closely related to the Zhuang, Shui, Buyi, and Li ethnic groups, and are originated from the ancient “Baiyue”. They have a common custom of “tattooing and cutting off hair”, but they are mixed with each other. Their footprints are also in Laos, northern Thailand, Myanmar and India. They were the first people to cultivate rice and use plows. In the 1st century BC, Chinese historical records contained records about the ancestors of the Dai people.

服饰

The traditional clothing of the Dai people is that men mostly wear double-breasted or large-breasted collarless shorts and fat trousers, while a few people wear dark skirts and wrap their heads with white, green, light blue, or light yellow cloth; women’s clothing varies from region to region. Significant differences. Women in Xishuangbanna wear white, crimson or light green tight-fitting narrow-sleeved blouses, various patterns of foot-length skirts, and silver belts. Women are very particular about their hair accessories. Decorated with flowers; there are also large cloth towels wrapped around the head. Women from Dehong and Gengma wear waist-length shorts and colorful skirts. Their hair is placed in a bun at the back of their head, with a lock of hair hanging behind their backs. Clothing materials used to be homespun cloth, but now they are mostly made of silk and muslin, which further highlight the graceful and graceful figures of Dai girls.

饮食

Rice and glutinous rice are the staple foods. The Dai people in Dehong eat Japonica rice as their staple food, while the Dai people in Xishuangbanna eat glutinous rice as their staple food. It is usually pounded and eaten immediately. Folks believe that only if Japonica rice and rice are eaten freshly pounded can they retain their original color and fragrance. Therefore, they do not eat overnight rice or rarely eat overnight rice, and they are used to kneading rice with their hands. All side dishes and snacks are mainly sour, such as sour bamboo shoots, sour pea powder, sour meat and wild sour fruits. They like to eat dried pickled vegetables. It is said that the Dai people often eat sour dishes because they often eat glutinous rice food that is not easy to digest. And sour food helps digestion. The daily meat diet includes pigs, cattle, chickens and ducks, and they do not eat or eat less mutton. The Dai people living in the mainland like to eat dog meat and are good at making roasted chicken and roasted chicken. They also like fish, shrimp, crab, snails, moss and other aquatic products. Using moss as a dish is a unique flavor of the Dai people. Cooked fish is mostly made into sour fish or grilled into lemongrass grass carp. In addition, fish is also made into minced fish grits (that is, grilled fish, pounded into puree, mixed with coriander, etc.), fish jelly, grilled fish, eel in white sauce, etc. When eating crabs, the crabs with their shells and meat are usually chopped into crab sauce and eaten with rice. The Dai people call this crab sauce “Crab Nanmibu”. Bitter melon is the most produced and consumed daily vegetable. In addition to bitter melon, there is also a kind of bitter bamboo shoots in Xishuangbanna, so the Dai flavor also has a bitter flavor. The more representative bitter dish is the beef skin cold dish platter cooked with ox bile and other ingredients. The Dai area is humid and hot, and there are many kinds of insects. Flavored dishes and snacks made with insects as raw materials are an important part of the Dai food. Commonly eaten insects include cicadas, bamboo insects, giant spiders, field turtles, ant eggs, etc. The Dai people are addicted to alcohol, but the alcohol content is not high. They are home-brewed and have a sweet taste. Tea is a local specialty, but the Dai people only drink large-leaf tea without spices. When drinking, just fry it on the fire until it is charred, brew it and drink it with a slightly pasty taste. Chewing betel nut, mixed with tobacco and lime, all day long. Typical foods include dog meat soup pot, dried pork, pickled eggs, dried eel, etc.

宗教

It is taboo for outsiders to ride horses, drive cattle, carry burdens, and enter the village with unkempt hair; when entering a Dai bamboo house, you must take off your shoes outside the door and walk lightly inside the house; you cannot sit on or across the firepit, and you cannot enter the owner’s house. In the inner room, you cannot sit on the threshold; you cannot move the tripod on the fire pit, and you cannot use your feet to step on the fire; it is taboo to whistle or cut nails at home; you are not allowed to use clothes as pillows or to sit on pillows; when drying clothes, your tops should be dried in a high place , pants and skirts should be kept low in the sun; shoes should be taken off when entering a Buddhist temple, and it is taboo to touch a series of Buddhist sacred objects such as the head of a young monk, Buddha statues, spears, flags and flags. Outsiders are not allowed to peek into the bedroom. In the past, customs stipulated that if the owner found out that outsiders were peeking into the owner’s bedroom, the man would become the owner’s son-in-law, or work hard at the owner’s house for three years. Even female guests would have to go to the owner’s home. He served at home for three years. Therefore, whether tourists visit or are guests in a Dai family, they must not peek into the owner’s bedroom because of the sense of mystery. Although the past customs are now broken, peeking into the Dai bedroom is always unpopular.

葬礼

The traditional funeral of the Dai people is divided into three types: burial, cremation and water burial, with burial being the main one. In the Dai area of ​​Xishuangbanna, there are one or more cemeteries around each village. Some call this cemetery Longshan, which is called “Baxiao” in Dai language. “The trees in Baxiao are not allowed to be cut down. Call it “Dragon Forest”. Over time, “Dragon Forest” became vigorous and tall, verdant and green, and turned into a scenic forest, making the natural scenery of Dai villages more beautiful. There are three types of cemeteries for burying the dead: First, those who died from normal illness People who died were buried in one place; second, children who died without adults were buried in another place; third, abnormal deaths, that is, death from sudden illness, homicide, drowning, etc., were buried in another place. In some places, the third type was not People who died normally were buried in water. The evil spirit was washed away with the body by the water. In the past, the Dai people practiced a strict hierarchical system. When people died, they were called and buried differently. When the Buddha Pazhangqi died, he was called “Nirvana” ; Zhaomeng (chieftain) is called “Nuanqie” when he dies; a leader is called “Xinzuo” when he dies; a Buddhist monk is called “Sangben” when he dies; ordinary people are called “evil” or “Sangzuo” or “Xinzuo” when they die. “West”. When people with status such as chieftains, chiefs, and Buddhas died, they were cremated and wished for an early ascension to heaven; when ordinary people died, they were buried in the ground.

忌讳

Marriage taboos: From Jinwa (the Close-Door Festival) to Chuwa (the Open-Door Festival) (three months after September 15th in the Dai calendar), no romance or marriage is allowed. Otherwise, you will be regarded as a cow and a horse that does not understand the seasons. , will turn into a dog after death. Nowadays, young men and women who break the taboo customs and get married because of deep love or pregnancy before marriage are still required to offer wine and meat to the village after marriage and treat the whole village to a meal. Otherwise, it will be considered as offending the village ghosts, and there will be diseases or other disasters in the village.

Religious prohibitions: Dai villages have a village heart (a wooden platform about three or four feet high with earth in the middle). This is the heart or life of the village. Therefore, it is forbidden to sit, step on or hang a horse on it. When the Dai people in Dehong Prefecture are offering sacrifices to the village, outsiders are prohibited from entering the village. Residents of the village must wait until the sacrifice is completed before entering or exiting the village. Those who enter the Buddhist temple must take off their shoes outside the door before entering. Avoid beating the drums in Buddhist temples casually; avoid touching statues of gods and spears used for making gifts. Avoid touching the top of the little monk’s head; avoid stepping on the shadows of Buddha and monks when walking. Buddhas and monks should avoid living together with ordinary people or living downstairs. It is forbidden for outsiders to enter the temple.

Taboos of living customs: When entering a Dai house, avoid taking off your shoes at the entrance of the building; after entering the house, avoid stamping the floor with your feet. Avoid leaning on the central pillar in the room, and avoid hanging objects on the central pillar. In the Dai family, next to the fire bed is usually the parent’s bed. It is forbidden to sit around or touch the “holy water bottle” beside the bed. It is forbidden to hang mosquito nets on beds set up in the middle halls of residences of the Dai people in Simao and other places. Avoid cutting nails, whistling, and playing musical instruments at home. It is believed that the sound of whistles and musical instruments can call ghosts into the house. Avoid defecating in neat dry land or vegetable gardens. If your clothes are torn, avoid using pants to mend them, as you think you will be poor. On the contrary, if your clothes are torn, you can mend them with your clothes. Clothes are not to be used as pillows; pillows are not to be used for sitting on. When wearing a hanging knife, avoid pointing the blade inwards, otherwise it will be considered as an “assassin” with bad intentions. It is taboo for the Dai people to use cattle on the day that belongs to the ox of each month, and it is forbidden to use the horse on the day that belongs to the horse.

Funeral taboos: If someone dies in the village, all people in the village stop production. Women can go out to cut firewood and collect feed, but they are not allowed to carry it into the village. Only after the deceased has been buried can the firewood and feed placed near the village be taken home.

Women’s taboos: Women are not allowed to plow fields, otherwise they will be struck by lightning; when building a house, women are not allowed to stand on high places; women are not allowed to step over men’s heads; tube skirts are not allowed to be exposed to high places; women can only enter Buddhist temples where they are permitted to go. It is forbidden to start at will; women during menstruation and childbirth are not allowed to enter Buddhist temples; women are not allowed to participate in gatherings and dances, and they are not allowed to percussion instruments; in public places, when men speak, women (except old women) are not allowed to interrupt; when there are guests at home, women are not allowed to sit at the same table Share meals.

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